Bretton Woods international monetary system.

The international monetary system (IMS): a set of practices, rules and institutions aimed at organizing and monitoring monetary exchanges and financial flows between countries.  This system of is generally defined as international payments and exchange rates between national currencies allows transactions between countries. Through history the world has known different monetary systems, one of the … Continue reading Bretton Woods international monetary system.


Consumer behavior and the decision-making process .

Knowing the customers’ purchasing behavior as closely as possible and understanding the underlying reasons for their purchases is one of the most important objectives all marketers work on achieving. Because this would make it possible to orient consumer purchases in the direction desired by the company. The study of consumer behavior therefore aims to help the … Continue reading Consumer behavior and the decision-making process .

Are management and leadership the same ?

In the business world, we often tend to use “manager” for “leader” and vice versa. It is not always easy to distinguish one from another. These two terms are moreover often confused and considered as synonyms. However, there are important differences between leadership and management. In fact, these two terms would have different definitions. Leadership … Continue reading Are management and leadership the same ?

Factors affecting bank liquidity.

Commercial banks liquidity, a measure of the cash and other assets banks have available to pay bills and meet short-term business and financial obligations, is not stable. It varies according to different factors: bank liquidity factors. In fact, the factors of bank liquidity are the set of events that affect banks’ liquidity and constrain them … Continue reading Factors affecting bank liquidity.

Economic liberalism.

The term liberalism is used to denote the intellectual and philosophical doctrine that calls for the spread of political and individual freedoms.  The concept of freedom remains the central idea upon which liberalism is based, which makes some describe it as the doctrine of freedom.The term economic liberalism first appeared in England in the late … Continue reading Economic liberalism.

Book summary: ” On Becoming A Leader ” by Warren Bennis.

” On Becoming A Leader ” a book by one of the world’s leading theorists on leadership, the American writer, scholar and organizational consultant Warren Gamaliel Bennis (1925-2014). Originally published in 1989, this book answers many important questions on the fundamentals and principles of leadership and presents a number of characteristics successful leaders share. Here … Continue reading Book summary: ” On Becoming A Leader ” by Warren Bennis.

Mechanisms of monetary creation.

Monetary creation consists of increasing the quantity of money held by non-financial agents (NFA). Indeed, within the economy the quantity of money in circulation is not stable.  Its variation has significant meaning.  When we observe in a given period a positive variation of the monetary aggregate we speak of money creation. It is the putting … Continue reading Mechanisms of monetary creation.

The principles of administrative management. | Henri Fayol.

Administrative management is classical management theory developed by the French mining engineer Henri Fayol (1841-1923) in his book “Industrial and general administration ” published in 1916.Fayol suggested 14 principles that focus on the administrative side of management.This theory generally calls for a formalized administrative structure.For Fayol, who was trying to find a rational way to design an organization … Continue reading The principles of administrative management. | Henri Fayol.

S.W.O.T analysis and its importance in marketing.

S.W.O.T (stands for Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats) analysis is a business strategy tool that helps determining the options offered in a certain area of activity. It’s a very practical and useful tool during the strategic diagnostic phase. It has the advantage of summarizing the strengths and weaknesses of a company as well as the opportunities … Continue reading S.W.O.T analysis and its importance in marketing.

Stages of economic growth according to W. Rostow.

The issue of economic growth and development has always been one of the major concerns of humanity.  It has aroused and still arouses the growing interest of researchers to find appropriate ways, policies and approaches, which allow human societies to converge towards an optimum of collective well-being. In 1960 The American economist Walt Whitman Rostow … Continue reading Stages of economic growth according to W. Rostow.