Theory of Purchasing Power Parity

To compare economic productivity and standards of living between countries, economists use an analysis metric called the Purchasing Power Parity that allows them to compare different countries’ currencies through a “basket of goods” approach. The Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) theory is a long-held belief that the exchange rate between two currencies should be the same … Continue reading Theory of Purchasing Power Parity

Tragedy Of The Commons

  People living in groups(societies) and sharing resources(commons) could either act according to their self-interests or seek the common good. This idea was first discussed in a pamphlet published in 1883 by the British economist William Forster Lloyd. He described a phenomenon called “Tragedy Of The Commons” according to which when people have open access to … Continue reading Tragedy Of The Commons

What Is Behavioral Economics?

 Classical economic models assume that people are rational, predictable, and make the most optimal choices, but are we really so? Trying to answer this question, a new economic sub-field emerged and it’s called “behavioral economics”. It is an attempt to prove that there are psychological, social, and emotional factors that influence our decision-making.    Behavioral … Continue reading What Is Behavioral Economics?

Malthusian Economics | Malthusian theory.

During the 17th century, thanks to the industrial revolution and the European expansion overseas, most European countries were witnessing an increase in agricultural production, technological innovation as well as a development in medical knowledge. All of these factors led to an acceleration in population growth. People were quite optimistic about the future, the conditions of … Continue reading Malthusian Economics | Malthusian theory.

What is stagflation?

You have, probably, already heard of economic inflation and deflation. And you know that the first one is characterized by a growing economic output, less unemployment and price levels going up. While deflation is the exact opposite. But what about a combination of both, sounds weird right?  but yes, there is something called Stagflation ! … Continue reading What is stagflation?

Friedman’s monetarism theory.

Monetarism is a theory suggested by the American economist Milton Friedman (1912-2006) in the 60s of the last century, in “A Monetary History of the United States”, a book he co-wrote with Anna Schwartz. The theory was named so for its focus on money’s role in the economy.  Monetarism is an economic doctrine according to … Continue reading Friedman’s monetarism theory.

Economic liberalism.

The term liberalism is used to denote the intellectual and philosophical doctrine that calls for the spread of political and individual freedoms.  The concept of freedom remains the central idea upon which liberalism is based, which makes some describe it as the doctrine of freedom.The term economic liberalism first appeared in England in the late … Continue reading Economic liberalism.

Stages of economic growth according to W. Rostow.

The issue of economic growth and development has always been one of the major concerns of humanity.  It has aroused and still arouses the growing interest of researchers to find appropriate ways, policies and approaches, which allow human societies to converge towards an optimum of collective well-being. In 1960 The American economist Walt Whitman Rostow … Continue reading Stages of economic growth according to W. Rostow.

Mercantilism: the economic side of colonialism.

Mercantilism: an economic theory that dominated in the modernized parts of Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. This theory is mostly associated with colonialism and the exploitation of the colonies’ natural resources.Mercantilism is considered as the first trade system between nations. Mercantilism is centered around the idea that a country’s wealth is determined … Continue reading Mercantilism: the economic side of colonialism.

The invisible hand theory.

A theory introduced by the Scottish economist Adam Smith in his book “The Wealth Of Nations”.This theory was based on the idea that people who are seeking for their individual interests could actually benefit other people too, even if unintentionally .Smith suggested to leave self-interested traders compete with one another without the intervention of the … Continue reading The invisible hand theory.